Course Content



PSE 601



Introduction to Photonics

Course Description: Photonics deals with light generation, amplification, guiding, manipulation, and detection for harvesting information. This course introduces some of the fundamental aspects of photonics excluding generation and detection.

Course Topics: Maxwell Equations, Wave Equations, Dielectric Media, Constitutive Relations Electromagnetic Waves- Gaussian Beams, Absorption and Dispersion Spatial and Temporal Coherence Boundary conditions, Fresnel’s equations and coefficients, Brewster and critical angles, Total internal reflection, Evanescent waves, ATR Polarization, Crystal optics and Optics of Anisotropic Media Interference and Interferometers: Fabry Perot Electro-optics, Acousto-optics and modulators Fourier transform, optical Fourier transform and introduction to Diffraction Dielectric Waveguides – conditions for propagation, modes, dispersion, field distribution Suggested topics for photonics applications, if time permits, will include: Photonic devices in brief: Beam splitter, Waveplates, Optical Isolator, Wavelength Switches, Fabry Perot Filters, Bragg Mirrors, Micro-ring Resonators.

References: [1] E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed., Pearson Education (2001).

[2] G. R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics, Dover (1989).

[3] Smith, F.G. & King, T.A. Optics and Photonics: An introduction, John Wiley and Sons (2007)

[4] K.Iizuka, Elements of Photonics, Vol.I and II, John Wiley and Sons (2002).

[5] A.Yariv, Optical Electronics, Oxford University Press (1990)

[6] T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag (1990).

[7] J. M. Liu, Photonic Devices, Cambridge University Press (2005)


PSE 602




Principles of Lasers and Detectors


Course Description: This course provides an introduction to the fundamental principles governing the operation and design of coherent light sources and detection tools.

Course Topics: Introduction to light sources, Lasers, principle of lasing Optical cavities, longitudinal, transverse modes, Stability Interaction of radiation with matter, Spontaneous emission Absorption and stimulated emission, line broadening mechanisms Population inversion, absorption and gain coefficients Pumping schemes (Rate equation based Lasing model) Three- and four- level lasers CW and pulsed lasers, Q-switching and mode-locking Detection of optical radiation: Photomultiplier tubes, semiconductor photodiodes, avalanche photodiodes, Single photon detectors, dark current, thermal noise, shot noise Measurement systems: Spectroscopy (Spectral and Temporal measurement systems), CCD, monochromater, pulse width measurement.

References: 1. Principles of Lasers, O. Svelto and D. C. Hanna,5th edition, 2010

2. Laser Physics, Peter W. Milonni and Joseph H. Eberly, Wiley, 2nd edition, 2010

3. Lasers, Anthony E. Siegman, University Science Books; 1st edition, 1986

4. Laser Electronics, Joseph T. Verdeyen, Prentice Hall; 3rd edition, 1995

5. Laser spectroscopy, W. Demtroder, 3rd edition, 2004



PSE 603



Numerical Methods in optics


Course Description: To train a student to be able to numerically model problems related to optical phenomena. Each of the topics listed below will be accompanied by case studies related to optics. Some suggested case studies are: Ray Tracing using Matrix methods, Design of optical systems, Vectorial Wave propagation, Beam propagation, Anisotropic media, Modal description.

Course Topics: Introduction to MATLAB/MATHMATICA type platform Linear algebra: matrices, matrix inversion; QR, Singular value decomposition, systems of equations, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, orthonormalization, condition number Laplace and Fourier transforms Vector calculus, Cartesian tensors Ordinary differential equations, series solution, Fourier series, Special functions Iterative and direct methods for linear algebraic equations; generalized inverses, least squares Numerical differentiation and integration; Numerical solution of 1st and second order ODEs, Runge-Kutta method, stability, stiff systems Partial differential equations, second order equations, classification, separation of variables, Sturm-Liouville theory Numerical solution of linear PDEs by the method of finite differences, stability Interpolation; Regression analysis Laplace equation, Poisson equation, Heat equation, Wave equation, Telegraph equation Complex variable theory Taylor series expansion, Taylor series approximation, applications such as linearization, root finding Signal processing fundamentals, time domain and frequency domain statistics, Convolution and Correlation, DFT applications.

References: 1. E. Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering mathematics, 8th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000.

2. M.D. Greenberg, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, International edition, 1998.

3. I. P. Castro, An Introduction to the Digital Analysis of Stationary Signals, Taylor and Francis , (1989).

4. M.S. Wartak, Computational Photonics: An introduction with MATLAB, Cambridge University Press (2012)

5. G.B. Arfken, H.J. Weber, and F.E. Harris, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 7th edition, Academic Press, 2012.

6. G.J. Gbur, Mathematical Methods in Optical Physics and Engineering, Cambridge University Press, New York (2011).

7. G. Strang, Introduction to Linear Algebra, Wellesley-Cambridge Press, UK 4th edition, (2009).



PSE 604


Photonic Systems and Applications

Course Description: Number of industrial and scientific applications related to photonics is growing rapidly across various disciplines. The basic courses in the first semester related to generation and transmission of photons deal with fundamental principles. The present course focuses on design issues for various applications/devices of photonics. Design of lasers, its tuning system and design of beam transmission components are discussed specific to different practical applications.

Course Topics: Principles and Applications of Solid State Laser Systems: Laser diode Structures, Mechanism of photon emission in semiconductor laser, Tunable semiconductor diode laser, Rare earth doped lasers, Nd-Glass/Nd-Yag/Er- doped/Vd-Yag Lasers, Transition metal lasers, Ruby/Ti-Saphire lasers, High Power Diode lasers, DPSS Lasers, Quantum cascade Laser.

Principles and Applications of Liquid and Gas Laser Systems: Dye laser, Tunable Lasers, Frequency stabilization, Tuning Techniques, Ar + lasers, He-Ne laser, CO2 lasers.

Nonlinear optics: Parametric processes, Phase matching, Nonlinear optical processes, SHG, Chirped pulse amplifier, parametric amplifier.

Photonics Applications in Medicine and Surgery: Laser Tissue Interaction, , Turbid media, Depth of penetration, Thermal and optical properties of tissue, Heat dissipation by blood flow, Diagnostic application of lasers, Dosimetry Photon Transport theory, Measurement of tissue properties, Double integrating sphere.

Laser Applications in Material Processing: Laser matter interaction, Non-Fourier thermal transport, Ablation, Laser induced plasma, Laser micromachining, Microfabrication, Direct-write patterning, Laser CVD, Texturing, Joining, Annealing, Scribing

Optical measurements: Thin film measurements, Temperature and concentration measurements, Stresses, Flow imaging, Biomedical diagnostics, Optical Tomography

Entertainment: CD Rom, Video Projection, Laser shows

Special Topics: Plasmonics, Photonic crystals, Optical antennas, Photonic metamaterials, anophotonics

References: 1. Kjell J. Gasvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2002

2. O. Svelto and D C Hanna, Principles of lasers, 4th Ed., 1998

3. R W Boyd, Nonlinear optics, Academic Press, 2nd Ed, 2003

4. M. H. Niemz, Laser Tissue Interaction Fundamentals and Applications,

5. K. Sugioka, M. Meunier, Laser Precision Microfabrication



PSE 605




Photonics Lab Techniques

Course Description: This course will help develop experimental skill of the students in the areas of optics and photonics. An eclectic mix of about ten experiments would be undertaken by the students in the semester from the given list, apart from demonstration experiments and laboratory visits.

Course Topics: 1. Electro-optic effect using LiNbO3 crystal

2. Acousto-optic modulator

3. Study of effects of loss, dispersion, amplifier noise on 10Gbps links

4. 40Gbps QAM modulation and coherent demodulation

5. Nonlinearities in fiber: Four-wave mixing, Raman scattering etc.

6. SHG generation and OPO using Nd:Yag laser

7. OPO using BBO crystal

8. Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction

9. He-Ne laser beam parameters

10. Laser diode characteristics: L-I characteristic, beam profile measurement, modes and spectrum using FP cavity

11. Michelson interferometer: setup, refractive index measurement

12. Nd:YAG laser characteristics

13. Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer

14. Holography

15. Loss and dispersion characterization of WDM optical components – Coupler,


     EDFA, Filter, and single-mode fibers. Demonstration experiments and        Research Lab visits are meant to familiarize students with CELP facilities and    various research activities of the faculty



PSE 606



 Research in Photonics and Lasers


Course Description: This course will serve as a precursor to the full Master’s thesis that a student in the program will undertake in the second year. The purpose of the course is two fold. It will reveal emerging trends in photonics and laser applications to the concerned student and bring out the topicality and importance of the program. The second goal is to train the student in various aspects of research methodology. These are literature survey, problem definition, preliminary analysis, defining a research program, conducting experiments/simulation, data analysis and interpretation, and report preparation. The student will identify and complete a short project during the semester. This project may be similar to his Master’s dissertation and may be guided by the thesis advisor, though it is not a requirement. The student grade will be based on a mid-term presentation and a final presentation combined with a report. A department level committee will evaluate all research projects and the committee chair will award the final grade.

This will be a S/X grade course. 

Research areas that can be pursued will evolve with time and reflect faculty interest. Possible topics include the following:

Biophotonics, nanobiophotonics,

Optical communication, Quantum cryptography

Nonlinear optics


Quantum dots, photonic crystals

Laser manufacturing and materials processing

Laser instrumentation, PIV, thermography, micro scale imaging

Satellite imaging, Clouds, aerosols, Lidar spectroscopy

Multiphoton imaging.

Texts and references will be project specific. A few lectures will be given to assist students in data representation, thesis and manuscript preparation. It is proposed to allocate five lectures for these, and will be conducted in the second half of the semester. The following reference will be appropriate in this context.

T.N. Huckin and L.A. Olsen, Technical Writing and Professional Communication for nonnative speakers of English, second (international edition, McGraw Hill (1991)