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Hydrologic cycle, systems concept, hydrologic model classification; Reynold’s Transport Theorem, continuity, momentum, and energy equations; Atmospheric hydrology: atmospheric circulation, water vapor, formation and forms of precipitation, precipitable water, monsoon characteristics in India, Thunderstorm Cell model, IDF relationships; factors affecting evaporation, estimation and measurement of evaporation, energy balance method, aerodynamic method, Priestley-Taylor method, and pan evaporation;

Surface Water: Catchment storage concept, Hortonian and saturation overland flow, streamflow hydrographs, base-flow separation, F-index, ERH & DRH, algorithm for abstraction using Green-Ampt equation, SCS method, overland and channel flow modeling, time area concepts, and stream networks;

Unit Hydrograph: General hydrologic system model, response functions of a linear hydrologic systems and their inter-relationships, convolution equation; definition and limitations of a UH; UH derivation from single and complex storms; UH optimization using regression, matrix, and LP methods; Synthetic unit hydrograph, S-Curve, IUH;

Sub-surface Water: Soil moisture, porosity, saturated and unsaturated flow; Richards’ equation, infiltration, Horton’s, Philip’s, and Green Ampt methods, parameter estimation, ponding time concepts;

Groundwater Hydrology: Occurrence of groundwater, aquifers & their properties, Darcy’s law, permeability, transmissibility, stratification, confined groundwater flow, unconfined groundwater flow under Dupit’s assumptions; Well hydraulics, steady flow into confined and unconfined wells; Unsteady flow in a confined aquifer.




Basics: dimensional analysis, equations of continuity, motion, and energy, irrotational flow, drag and lift of immersed bodies.

Pipe flow: laminar flow, turbulent flow, boundary layer theory, wall turbulent shear flow, free turbulent shear flow.

Open Channel flow: energy-depth relationships, uniform flow, gradually varied flow, hydraulic jump, rapidly varied flow, spatially varied flow, unsteady flow.




Verification of momentum equation; Friction loss in pipes; Rainfall-runoff relationship; Flow over sharp crested weir; Flow in pipe networks; Bernoulli theorem; Fall velocity of objects; Point velocity measurement by ADV; Reynolds' apparatus; Venturimeter and orifice meter; Energy loss in bends; Ground water flow/ well abstraction; Hydrogen bubble flow visualization; Hydraulic jump; Flow past a cylinder.




Basics: Introduction to computer programming and computation with Matlab.

Open channel flow: Estimation of normal and critical depth; uniform flow computations; computation of water surface profile (WSP) - gradually varied flow estimation using standard step and direct step methods, WSP in presence of hydraulic structures; unsteady flow - Saint-Venant equation, kinematic wave routing, diffusion routing, overland flow; steady and unsteady modelling using HEC-RAS.

Closed conduit flow: Steady and unsteady state modelling; pipe network analysis; introduction to EPANET/WaterCAD.

Surface water hydrology: Estimation of Unit hydrographs; lumped and distributed flow routing; hydrologic statistics - parameter estimation, time series analysis, frequency analysis, geostatistics; hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS.

Groundwater hydrology: Solving groundwater flow equation - saturated and unsaturated flow, Richards' equation, Green-Ampt infiltration model; introduction to MODFLOW.

Application of soft computing methods and GIS in Hydraulic and Hydrologic modelling. Laboratory: Programming exercises for the related topics.




Hydrologic processes: precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, groundwater, and stream flow; Hydrologic measurements and networks.

Analysis of discrete and continuous hydrologic data: harmonic analysis, statistical analysis including frequency analysis, correlation, and regression analysis and multivariate analysis, time series analysis and its applications; System analysis and synthesis; Linear and non - linear, lumped and distributed parameter systems; Queing models, simulation analysis; Hydrologic design of water resources systems.




Statistical methods in hydrology, probability distribution of hydrologic variables, hypothesis testing and goodness of fit, flood frequency analysis, single and multiple regression analysis, classification of time series, characteristics of hydrologic time series, statistical principles and techniques for hydrologic time series modelling, time series modelling of annual and periodic hydrologic time series (including AR, ARMA, ARIMA, and DARMA models), multivariate modelling of hydrologic time series, practical considerations in time series modelling applications.




Expert Systems (ES): history of ES, basic concepts of ES, definition and components of ES, inference engines and reasoning mechanisms e.g. forward reasoning, backward reasoning, and mixed reasoning, knowledge representation methods and development of the rule based knowledge base, dealing with uncertainty, and selected case studies of ES applications to engineering and sciences;

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs): background and history of ANNs, definitions and basic concepts of ANNs, biological and artificial neural networks, feed-forward and feed-back networks, supervised and unsupervised learning methods–standard back-propagation (BP), conjugate gradients BP, self organizing networks, etc., development of ANN models for specific problems and selected case studies;

Genetic Algorithms (GAs): fundamentals and preliminary concepts of evolution and GA, preliminaries of optimization, genetic operators-selection, crossover, and mutation, binary and real-coded GAs, constraint handling in GAs, and selected case studies involving GA applications to engineering.




Properties of sediments, incipient motion, bed load, suspended load, total load, sediment measurements, regime concepts, bed form mechanics, plan form and stream bed variations of rivers, reservoir sedimentation, erosion and deposition, sediment control, sediment transport in pipes.




Groundwater as a resource, general problems of chemical contamination in groundwater; Fluid potential, heterogeneity and anisotropy; Aquifers, aquitards and general geology, well hydraulics, parameter estimation; Steady and transient flow equations, unsaturated flow equation; Pollutant transport in groundwater, chemical and transport processes, numerical modeling and solution, break through curves; Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers; Modelling of pollutant transport in the unsaturated zone; Optimization models for management of groundwater quantity and quality; Optimal monitoring network design; Multiple objective management; Conjective management of surface and groundwater; Special topics.




Review of basic equations; 2 D Shallow water flow equations: Boussinesq equations, Finite - difference solutions: explicit and implicit methods; Dambreak flow analysis; Supercritical flow computation; Sediment routing models.




Introduction: Origin and scope of ecohydrology.

Ecohydrological processes: Interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes at basin scale - soil water dynamics, land surface energy budgets; scales of interactions; ecohydrological optimality theory; ecohydrological controls on nutrient cycle.

Techniques in ecohydrological measurements: Measuring energy and water fluxes in atmosphere, soil and vegetation; atmosphere – latent, sensible and CO2 fluxes, distribution of wind, temperature and humidity; soil – soil moisture, soil respiration and soil heat flux; vegetation – leaf area index, stomatal conductance and transpiration.

Ecohydrological modelling: Governing equations; mathematical models - stochastic and deterministic models; process based and empirical models; calibration and validation of models; scale issues in ecohydrological modelling.

Applications of ecohydrology: Use of ecohydrogical principles in paleohydrology and climate change studies; ecohydrological approach for sustainable management of floods and droughts; case studies from tropical river basins and dryland ecosystems.




Precipitation, Infiltration and Evapotranspiration: Forms of precipitation, measurement, depth-duration and intensity-duration frequency relations, Evaporation – process, measurement, and estimation, Infiltration process,measurement, and estimation. Evapotranspiration measurement and estimation;

Runoff and Hydrographs: Rainfall Runoff correlations, Flow duration cureve.Mass curve, Droughts and floods, Factors affecting flow hydrograph, Unit-hydrograph, its analysis and S-curve hydrograph, Synthetic and instantaneousunit hydrographs;

Statistical analysis: Hydrologic Routing, Risk, reliability, andsafety factor, Flood frequency studies;

Flood forecasting: Rational method, Time Area curves, Desing flood; Channel and flood routing ;

Groundwater hydrology: Flow equations Confined and unconfined flow, Well hydraulics, Steadyand unsteady flow, Well losses, Specific capacity; Irrigation Engineering




Pipe Flow; Boundary Layer Concepts, Turbulent Flow, Pipe Networks, Open channel Flow, Uniform Flow, Critical Flow, Gradually Varied Flow, Rapidly Varied Flow, spatially Varied flow, Unsteady flow, Pipes, Open Channels, Flow measurement, Viscosity, Pressure, Velocity and turbulence measurements, Forces on immersed Bodies, Drag and lift, Irrigation Engineering.




Precipitation, Infiltration and Evapotranspiration, Forms of precipitation, measurement, depth-area-duration and intensity-duration frequency relations, Evaporation - process, measurement, and estimation, Infiltration process, measurement, and estimation, Evapotranspiration measurement and estimation, Runoff and Hydrographs, Rainfall Runoff correlations, Flow duration curve, Mass curve, Droughts and floods, Factors affecting flow hydrograph, Unit hydrograph, its analysis, and S-curve hydrograph, Synthetic and instantaneous unit hydrographs, Statistical analysis, Hydrologic Routing, Risk, reliability, and safety factor, Flood frequency studies, Flood forecasting, Rational method, Time Area curves, Design flood, Channel and flood routing, Groundwater hydrology, Flow equations Confined and unconfined flow, Well hydraulics Steady and unsteady flow, Well losses, Specific capacity.




Fundamentals of hydraulic turbine theory; Turbine performance characteristics and selection of turbines; Design of radial flow and axial flow turbines and Pelton turbines; Fundamentals of Rotodynamic pumps; Centrifugal and axial flow pumps; special duty pumps; cavitations in hydraulic machines.




Introduction; Sediment load; Resistance to flow; Regime theories, River training; River modelling; Social and Environmental impacts.