Course title

Course code


Environmental Geodesy


The Earth system: Systems approach to studying Earth, climate and weather systems, mass distribution, transport and exchange in the Earth system, Impact of physical processes on the geometry and gravity of the Earth, loading theory and the sea level equation.

Observation techniques in Geodesy: Geometric techniques – total stations, strain meters, tide gauges, global navigation satellite systems, satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, satellite altimetry (radar and laser), interferometric SAR; gravimetric techniques – absolute gravimetry, relative gravimetry, satellite gravimetry.

Tides: Gravitational interaction of the Sun, Moon and the Earth, ocean tides   atmospheric tides,  solid Earth tides, Doodson numbers.

Hydrological observables: Water storage chnage, soil moisture, river runoff and lake levels, groundwater variability.

Oceanographic observables: Sea surface topography and the mean sea level, ocean currents, ocean mass redistribution, ocean bathymetry.

Cryospheric observables: Sea ice thickness observations, ice mass balance, glacier thickness and drift

Atmospheric observables: Total precipitable water, ionospheric total electron content, atmospheric circulation and mass redistribution.

Solid Earth observables: Elastic, viscoelastic and episodic deformation and gravity responses to geodynamic processes like plate tectonics, Earthquakes and volcanic activity.



  1. Lambeck, K. (1989). Geophysical Geodesy. Oxford University Press.
  2. Lambeck, K. (1980). The Earth’s variable rotation: Geophysical causes and consequences. Cambridge University Press
  3. Christopherson (1996). Geosystems.
  4. Ilk, K.H., Flury, J., Rummel, R., Schwintzer, P., Bosch, W., Haas, C., Schröter, J., Stammer, D., Zahel, W., Miller, H. and Dietrich, R. (2005). Mass transport and mass distribution in the Earth system. Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie.
  5. Pail, R., Bingham, R., Braitenberg, C., Eicker, A., Horwath, M., Longuevergne, L., Panet, I., Rolstad-Denby, C., Wouters, B., et al. (2015). Observing Mass Transport to Understand Global Change and to Benefit Society: Science and User Needs - An international multi-disciplinary initiative for IUGG. Report no. B320. German Geodetic Commission Reports, Volume B, München 2015.
  6. Stammer, D. and Cazenave, A. (2017). Satelite Altimetry over oceans and land surfaces (2017). CRC Press
  7. Jin, S. and Cardellach, Estel (2013). GNSS Remote Sensing. Springer
  8. Herring, T. (2007). Geodesy. In: Treatise on Geophysics. Eds:Schubert, G. Vol. 3. Elsevier
  9. Böhm, J. and Schuh (2013). Atmospheric effects in Space Geodesy. Springer.
  10. Woodhouse, I. (2005). Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing. CRC Press