Course title

Course code


Introduction to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)


Background: Revision to satellite Geodesy, Keplerian laws, inertial coordinate systems etc.,

Overview of GNSS: Introduction to  GPS,  GLONASS, GALILEO, BIDOU, IRNSS satellite systems etc.,

GPS: Basic concepts, signal structure and code modulation, pseudo range measurements and navigation solution. Accuracy of navigation position:  UERE and DOP.  Intentional degradation of GPS signals: Selective availability (SA) and  anti-spoofing (AS),  Differential GPS:  Space based augmentation systems (e.g., GAGAN, WAAS, EGNOS) and ground based augmentation systems.

GPS carrier phase measurements: Single differencing, double differencing and triple differencing in GPS measurements.  ambiguity resolution, multi path and other observational errors, doppler effect on GPS signals, cycle slip detection and repair. gnss observation, data downloading, processing and discussion of processed data.



  1. Kaplan, E D and Hegarty C J (2006). Understanding GPS: Principles and Application. 2nd ed. Artech House Inc., MA 02062.
  2. Alfred Leick (2004). GPS Satellite Surveying. 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
  3. Kennedy, M (2002). The Global Positioning System & GIS: An Introduction,Taylor & Francis.
  4. Guochang Xu (2007). GPS Theory, Adjustments and Applications. Springer and Verlag, Heidelberg.
  5. Torge, W (2001). Geodesy. 3rd ed. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin. New York.
  6. Vanícek, P and Krakiwsky, E (1986). Geodesy: The Concepts. 2nd ed. Elsevier.