Course title

Course code


Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for Surveying and Mapping


GNSS Basic Observables: Pseudo ranges and carrier phase measurements.
GNSS Surveying Techniques: Point positioning and differential positioning, DGPS and SBAS.
Relative positioning: Static – Rapid static and pseudo kinematic; kinematic positioning – pure kinematic, semi kinematic and real time kinematic (RTK) methods of observations. Real time network (VRS) services.
Planning and field observations: Networking, data post processing; with vendor software and scientific software.CORS, setting up of regional geodetic networks and development of regional geoid models.
GNSS applications to Global, Regional and Local issues: IUGG, IAG, IGS and IERS services.



  1. Kaplan, E D and Hegarty C J (2006). Understanding GPS: Principles and Application. 2nd ed. Artech House Inc., MA 02062.
  2. Alfred Leick (2004). GPS Satellite Surveying. 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
  3. Kennedy M (2002). The Global Positioning System & GIS: An Introduction, Taylor & Francis.
  4. Guochang Xu (2007). GPS Theory, Adjustments and Applications. Springer and Verlag, Heidelberg
  5. Torge, W (2001). Geodesy. 3rd ed. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin. New York.
  6. Vanícek, P and Krakiwsky, E. (1986). Geodesy: The Concepts. 2nd ed. Elsevier.