Course title

Course code


Laser Scanning and Photogrammetry


Introduction to photogrammetry: Photogrammetric terms, applications, advantages, limitations and a brief history, types of camera: metric vs. non-metric, types of photogrammetry.

Aerial photogrammetry: Geometry of vertical/near-vertical aerial photographs: Orthographic vs. perspective projection, Map vs. photograph, scale of photograph, estimate the scale, relief displacement and its determination, parallax in photographs and measurement, stereoscopy.

Transformation between image and object space: collinearity equations, Interior & exterior orientation, Space resection, Space forward intersection and limitations, Aerial triangulation and bundle block adjustment.

Ortho-photo and DTM generation: Terrestrial photogrammetry, computer vision approach, DLT, epipolar geometry, Image matching methods: SURF, RANSAC etc, structure from motion (SfM) (Introduction and brief).

LiDAR: Introduction, Laser characteristics, laser interaction with objects, Types of LiDAR systems: Terrestrial, airborne, static and dynamic, Altimetric LiDAR: topographic and bathymetric, single and multiple return, full waveform digitization.

Components of a LiDAR system: INS/GNSS/LiDAR integration, system calibration, Kalman filter (brief), LiDAR geo-location, accuracy of LiDAR components, error propagation and error analysis, Airborne LiDAR surveys: Flight Planning, survey execution, Examples and applications of integrated LiDAR systems: MMS, Airborne LiDAR systems, UAVs.

Integration of LiDAR with spectral data (camera): LiDAR data classification techniques, raw data to bald Earth DEM processing, applications of return intensity and full waveform in information extraction, LiDAR Applications: building, tree, powerline extraction.

Integrated systems (UAV, Car, Aircraft etc.): Applications and some case studies: Mining, exploration, SLAM.



  1. Wolf, Paul, R. Elements of Photogrammetry. Second Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1982.
  2. Mikhail, E., M., Bethel, J. S. and McGlone, J. C., Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
  3. Toth, C., K., Shan, J. Topographic laser ranging and scanning: Principles and Processing, CRC Press.