Manufacturing Science and Technology




3L-0T-1P-0A (10 Credits)



TA201, TA202.

Course Content:

Introduction to manufacturing processes and system concept and its evolution; Metal casting: Solidification Mechanism, Gating and Riser Design, Defects and Product Design; Metal Forming: Fundamentals of Plasticity, Force Equilibrium Method, Forging/upsetting, Drawing, Extrusion, Deep Drawing and Bending, Defects; Machining: Tool Specifications, Orthogonal and Oblique cutting, Tool wear and Tool Life, Economics of Machining; Shaping processes for Plastics and Tool Design; Joining Processes; Un-Conventional Material Removal Processes: ECM, EDM, LBM and Jet Machining; Rapid Prototyping and Tooling; Micro-fabrication technologies; Metrology and Selection of Manufacturing Processes.

Lecturewise Breakup:

I. Introduction to manufacturing processes and system concept: (1 Lecture)

II. Metal Casting: (5 Lectures)

  • Solidification of Alloys and its mechanism. 

  • Gating System Design  and Estimation of Solidification time.

  • Riser Design and Riser Placement.

  • Defects and Product Design.

III. Metal Forming : (7 Lectures)

  • Mechanism of plastic deformation, fundamentals of plasticity.

  • Introduction to Force equilibrium method. 

  • State of Stress and boundary conditions in Upsetting/forging, Rolling, Wire and tube drawing, Extrusion and Deep Drawing, Defects.

  • Load estimation for one plane strain and one axi-symmetric bulk deformation process.

  • Analysis of Deep Drawing and Bending.

  • Introduction to High velocity forming processes.

IV. Metal Cutting: (6 Lectures)

  • Tool Geometry – single edge tools – reference plane, system.

  • Tool Specifications – ASA, NRS.

  • Mechanics of Orthogonal cutting – Force relationship, Shear angle relationship, determination of co-efficient of friction, determination of stress, strain and strain rate.

  • Mechanics of Oblique cutting – Force relationship, shear relationship, co-efficient of friction, stress strain and strain rate.

  • Tool Wear and Tool life – Tool wear mechanism, Progressive tool wear, variables affecting tool life.

  • Economics of machining – Optimizing cutting parameters for minimum  cost.

  • Grinding of metals, Grinding forces and specific energy, wheel wear and grinding performance.

V. Unconvensional Machining Processes : (3 Lectures)

  • Mechanics of Electrochemical machining; ultrasonic machining; electro-discharge machining; laser beam machining and Jet (Abrasive and Water) Machining.

VI. Shaping Process For Plastics: (2 Lectures)

  • Properties of polymer melts and Visco-elasticity  common shaping processes (Extrusion, Injection Molding, Compression Molding)  and their tool design.

  • Common defects; Product design considerations.

VII. Joining: (3 Lectures)

  • Introduction to friction welding process and  mechanism.

  • Introduction to non metal joining processes.

  • Weld quality, defect and inspection.

VIII. Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Tooling: (3 Lectures)

  • Need for RP/RT; Common RP processes; steriolithography, fused deposition modelling(FDM), selective laser sintering.

  • Introduction to rapid tooling techniques; various soft and hard tooling techniques. Applications of RP/RT.

IX. Micro-Manufacturing: (4 Lectures)

  • Introduction and Scaling Laws for micro-manufacturing.

  • Silicon Layer Processes.

  • LIGA process  Other Micro-fabrication Processes.

IX. Metrology: (5 Lectures)

  • Principles of engineering metrology, Abbe’s principle of alignment, Measuring errors, application of least square principle.

  • Interferometry – principles, flatness testing using optical flat, optical interferometers, Moire fringe system measurements.

  • Measurement of Angle, taper and radius.

  • Limits, fits and tolerances.

  • Measurement and gauging of screw threads and gears.

  • Acceptance tests for machine tool – CMM.

IX. Selection of Manufacturing Processes: (2 Lectures)

  • Basic considerations.

  • Process Information Maps (PRIMAs)  and Real life examples.

Laboratory sessions:

I. Machining: Force measurement in turning.

II. Machining: Force measurement in Grinding.

III. Forming: Load prediction and measurement and their comparison for Extrusion and/or Deep Drawing.

IV. Electrical discharge machining .

V. Metrology: CMM and Other measuring Instruments.

VI. Micro-fabrication technologies.


  1. Ghosh, A., Mallik, A.K., Manufacturing Science (2nd edition), EastWest Press, 2010.

  2. Lal, G.K., Introduction to Machining Science (2nd edition), New Age International publishers, 2009.

  3. Groover, M.P, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing (2nd edition), John Wiley.

  4. Kalpakjian, S., Schmid, S.C., Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Pearson Education.

  5. Galyer, J.F.W., Shotbolt, C.R., Metrology for Engineers, ELBS.